Social Responsibility Theory:A theoretical analysis of the media landscape in Ghana.

Source: Udemy, Inc.

Normative theories describe the way media systems should be operated for the realisation of some ideal values and principles. The theories are more concerned with the relationship between the media and the government.

The Social Responsibility Theory was formally designed by Siebert, Peterson and Schrann in 1956 in their book “Four Theories of the Media ” . Which was later developed and advanced by other scholars.
The theory emerged in the mid twentieth century. During the 17th and 18th centuries, libertarian principles gave absolute freedom to the media which caused journalists to publish whatever they liked not necessarily for the public good. Public uproar about media operations negated the emergence of Social responsibility theory which gave premise for professionalism in media to be taken serious.

Social Responsibility Theory as one of the Normative theories suggests that, the media has an obligation to act for the benefit of society at large. According to Pachamama Alliance (2019), social responsibility is an ethical theory, in which individuals are accountable for fulfilling their civic duty; the actions of an individual must benefit the whole society.
Looking at the Normative theories, it can be established that the theories have been transformed to suit the media landscape in terms of who owns the media and who controls the media. From Authoritarian theory to Libertarian theory to Social Responsibility Theory to Soviet communist theory.
Postulates of SRT
• Freedom comes with obligations; and the press which enjoys a privileged position under the government is expected to be responsible to society in performing certain essential functions of mass communication in contemporary society.
• To the extent that the press does not assume it’s responsibility, another agency must see that the essential functions of mass communication are carried out.
• The media should meet certain professional standards in line with democratic principles.

In assessing media operations in Ghana based on the Social Responsibility Theory, there’s a need to establish the socio-political context of the country.
Per the 1992 constitution, Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a President who is head of state and head of government. Under the democratic system, the constitution declares that sovereignty resides in the people of Ghana. The media of Ghana has witness different operations and functions from the 19th century (colonial system) to post-independence to 1992-2000 and 2000 to present.

The media is known to have played a vital role in the struggle for liberation and has helped promote some form of democracy in the country. Also the media has been described as “one of the most unfettered ” in Africa, operating with little restriction on private media. It is essential to note that due to some challenges, it has affected media operations in the country.

These challenges are:
*Qualified freedom
*Lack of training
*Poorly paid
* Under resourced

One of the basic assumptions of social responsibility theory is that “Freedom comes with obligation and the press which enjoys a privileged position under the government is expected to be responsible to the society in performing certain essential function of mass communication in contemporary society. ” In as much as the media in Ghana has a qualified freedom, the Ghanaian media is known to perform some essential duties.
Again, under the SRT the media works for the society disregarding being profit oriented. But here in Ghana due to financial break down of some media houses it is profit oriented. In this case, the dissemination of contents is based on topics that will attract numerous viewers not necessarily serving the society.
The media in Ghana is slightly regulated by National Communication Authority, National Media Commission and sometimes the Ghana Journalist Association(code of ethics) but the media operating under the Social Responsibility Theory is expected to be regulated by the government if they do not perform functions according to the needs of the people.Deductively, the media operation in Ghana is always in check.

Under Hutchins Commission, a couple of recommendations were made on  how the media is supposed to operate. The committee on free and responsible press expressed the view that the press should provide a truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day’s events in a context which gives them meaning; serve as a forum for the exchange of comment and criticism project a responsible picture of the constituent groups in society.

In as much as the media in Ghana is profit oriented there has been the observation of media playing the role of the watch dog by criticizing actions and inactions of the government, reporting news that informs and alert us with information to help us form our opinions about issues and also give platforms to people to exchange views on topical issues.
The only factor hindering the media from operating fully as stated by the Social Responsibility theory is the financial challenge, unprofessional standards by some journalists and having a state owned media house.
The Social Responsibility Theory is still relevant due to it features and arguments, however media operations sometimes depends on the socio-political context of the country. Also due to privatisation as a feature of the SRT it’s elusive to attain ethical considerate journalists.

Construction of a Harbor in Jamestown – A Classic Case of Industrialization without Developing people. A contradiction?

View of part of Jamestown environs

Construction of a Harbor in Jamestown – A Classic Case of Industrialization without Developing people.  A contradiction?

There are ten locations named Jamestown in the entire world. From Jamestown in California, North Dakota, Ohio, Rhode Island, South Australia and others.

Today’s focus on Jamestown which is located in Ghana, the center of hospitality and historical sites. Occupying in the east of Korle Lagoon, Jamestown is one of the ancient districts in the hearts of Accra, Ghana. It is known as a community on the Gulf of Guinea coast.

Today, Jamestown continues to exist as a predominantly fishing community inhabited mostly by the Ga people, full of colonial buildings which are popular tourist destinations for people to observe and site seeing.

In December 2018, Jamestown was thrown into the media limelight in the event of a sod cutting for the construction of a new Harbor.

According to Ghana Web and, during the sod cutting event, the President of Ghana made mention of the fact that the construction of the harbor is made possible by a $60 million grant from the Chinese government.

Another news story shared via the Ghana News Agency website further highlighted that Ghana and China signed agreements totaling $66 million to support the Jamestown Fishing Port Complex and the implementation of projects, including the second phase of the University of Health and Allied Sciences.

The Chinese government’s grants to construct a port in Jamestown is a step that has multiple implications. I am of the view that, the construction of the Harbor will destroy the traditional livelihoods, as well as damage the historic architecture of the environment. It will drastically change not only the tangible fabric of this historic town, but also impact the fishing methods, market traders and community that depend on the sea.

Earlier this year, a billboard was suddenly erected on the beach displaying an “artist’s impression” of how the beach is to be developed. The image show’s the beach completely cleared of its inhabitants. There’s also a large car park and a series of somewhat bland sheds or factories. There is not one single canoe in sight. This will have implications, some of which are not difficult to guess. It’s a business venture for the rich and disaster to the indigenous community.

Billboard erected on beach

 The harbor at Accra’s district of Jamestown was built to provide shelter from the heavy surf that pounds this part of the coast. The breakwater and pier were equipped with railway tracks, gantries and cranes to handle the large produce exports following the cocoa boom of the early 1900s. The wealth created from this trade saw some fine buildings being built. An array of warehouses, stores and villas survive (some very precariously) in Jamestown to this day.

The fundamental question arising from this – what are the underlying motives behind the Chinese government funding these projects and what are the consequences for the working community of James Town?

These were the views from people when asked to share their concern on the issue:

“The Chinese government is finding ways and means to divide and control the world as a way of challenging United States hegemony. They have a strong agenda of taking over Africa which was road mapped a decade ago, they are not helping us but trapping us.”

“For me I think because they want to control some movement of the government through this financial support”

“We all know why they do that but then we should be clear about why they gave that and how they intend to indirectly get the money back”

“Apart from France, UK and US, the fourth nation dominating African continent is China. The kind gesture of foreigners should not be taken as kind but a way to expand their economies.”

“This new harbor they are funding represents the international trade relationship we have with China but there might be some strings attached or China is trying to win us over (Africa) so it’s a strategy they are using and the effects will be seen later.”

Looking beyond this issue, I realized that probably the end of the project will benefit the few rich individuals in the country looking at the emerging issue of gentrification in the country – existing communities are targets of the capitalist development model, which is basically development at the top. This could be the case of the construction of a harbor in Jamestown.

Gentrification is when a neighborhood cosmetically improves so that it creates better opportunities for the middle class – in the case of Ghana, the few rich individuals.

Already, some parts of Jamestown has been demolished due to the construction of the harbor, causing destruction but however, the people are under the false impression that the new harbor if completed will create a thousand jobs for them which will improve their living conditions.

With regards to the fact that the community is tagged as a low income residence, the harbor project sounds positive but there is a thin line that makes the beneficiaries unclear. The harbor after it completion will shift the low income community into a sophisticated community with increasing cost of living: expensive housing, businesses will take advantage of the development at the expense of the community.

Improved resources which will increase the economic value of Jamestown but can force out the people due to a perceived cost of rent and higher cost of goods.

In the last six months eviction processes have started to clear the beach. My recommendation will be an earnest plea for this proposal to be rethought – and for this fascinating part of the city to be regenerated in a way that celebrates and respects the history and people of Jamestown.


Top 3 places to visit in Ghana

Travel makes one modest.You see what a tiny place you occupy in the world. 

-Gustave Flaubert

I love Ghana !
Among the thousands reasons why I do, owes to the fact that it is incredibly beautiful with countless places to explore.
Today, I am going to give an account of the attraction I visited recently.

Here in Ghana, there are innumerable attractions to visit. My favourite tourist spots are Elmina Castle, Aburi Botanical Gardens, Kwame Nkrumah Mausoleum, Kakum National Park, Kwahu Mountain and the Mole National Park.

But this article will center it attention on the top 3 places I recently visited as stated earlier.

Let’s kick off with the Aburi Botanical Gardens. Which is located in Aburi, the Eastern region of Ghana. Roughly an hour drive from Ghana’s capital city Accra.

The garden inhabits an area of 64.8 hectares but only 12.2 hectares have been developed into a garden that encompasses and preserves the earth’s remaining rare plant species.
The striking part of the garden is the ravishing parallel palm trees on both sides of the road.

Palm trees at Aburi Botanical Gardens

The tour guide made mention of the fact that these palm trees are not the original plants cultivated during the early stage of the garden.
It’s suffices to say that, the comforting fragrance from both exotic and local greenery and the colourful butterflies will bedazzle you. It’s such a fine setting for picnics or a get together with family and friends.

For the lovers of ornamental plants, the tour guide highlighted some embellishing plants like Ficus leprieurii, Dillenia indica, Brownea grandiceps, and Murraya exotica.
Other fascinating features are the horticulture school, the retired helicopter, the lover’s lane, the tree of life and the VIP garden which has plants seeded by dignitaries from some part of the world.

Twin tree at Aburi Botanical Gardens


Tree of life at Aburi Botanical Gardens


Subsequently, the St. George Castle also called the Elmina castle. Located in the Central Region of Ghana, about 4-hours drive from Accra.

Elmina Castle

 The construction of the castle started by the Portuguese in 1482 and was wrapped up in 1486.

During my visit, an account of the history of the castle which has to do with slave trade was given.

Elmina Castle

From the displacement of people, culture, and resources to the dehumanizing act the enslaved people suffered. Owing to the fact that, they  were recognized as property.
Walking in and out of dungeons with tiny-weeny entrance put in place to restrict slaves from escaping and having an idea of what our ancestors went through got me teary.


The Elmina is known for beautiful beaches where you can relax and enjoy.

Fishing spot close to the castle


The Kwame Nkrumah mausoleum, also known as the Kwame Nkrumah memorial park which is the last resting place of the former President of Ghana, Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah; the man who left an irreplaceable indelible mark in the world and his wife Fathia Nkrumah.

Statute of Kwame Nkrumah at the Memorial Park

The  memorial park covers 5.3 acres and contains two edifices. It is located in Accra, opposite the Commission for Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ).

Peafowl at the Memorial Park

 The cicerone gives some form of life history and the purpose of dedicating the memorial park to Kwame Nkumah.

Tourist taken a stroll at memorial park

The memorial park is attractive, the springs of water on both side of the walk way with seven bare chest squatting statuette flute blowers. In the Ghanaian culture, flutes are blown to welcome very important people.

Seven bare chest squatting statuette flute blowers

The memorial park has Kwame Nkrumah’s  personal items, publication and images of him with Fidel Castro, Queen Elizabeth II of England, President Nasser of Egypt and other renowned leaders.

The  structure bear semblance to swords which have been turned upside down whiles others view it as an uprooted tree which signifies the unfinished work of Kwame Nkrumah.

The dialectics of Neo-colonialism and Africa’s economic instability;my view


The struggle against neo-colonization has not fully yielded national independence in terms of the economy. Africa tries to find its way out- as Nkrumah noted in his profound speech in Addis Ababa, “Our people supported us in our fight for independence because they believed that Africa’s government could cure the ills of the past in a way which could never be accomplished under colonial rule. If therefore, now that we are independent, we allow the same conditions to exist that existed in colonial days, all the resentment which overthrew colonialism will be mobilized against us”.
Neo-colonialism is defined as the continuation of the economic model of colonialism after a colonized territory has achieved formal political independence.
It has been established that out of about 7 continents, Africa has approximately 30% of the earth’s remaining mineral resources. Pardon me, as I single out Ghana for particular emphasis.
*Ghana is Africa’s largest producer of gold
*Has found deposit of oil
*Second largest producer of cocoa
*Has bauxite, timber, diamond, natural gas, fertile soil and fresh water


But then in the phase of neo-colonialism and imperialism which is fueled by greed, lack of accountability, corruption and ignorance the nation is still crawling in the race for development; Given that very few people own and control these resources for their benefit.

Nonetheless, you might be pondering about how economic instability emerged in the period of neo-colonization in as much as Africa has grasp liberation. According to an article I read online; after independence, the main revenue base for African countries continues to be the export of raw materials, this has resulted in the underdevelopment of African economies while Western industries thrive.
A classic example of this process is the extractive industry, where minerals exported could not serve to develop the African economy because minerals taken from the continent by giant Multinational Corporation are processed and sold back as manufactured goods to African consumers.
Another scenario is foreign aid. I must say due to unavailability of social amenities and financial crisis, it’s elusive for some African countries to desist from enlisting on foreign aid. Which comes in the form of loans bearing high interest rate. The repayment of these loans contribute to the underdevelopment of our continent owing to the fact that the collection of interest is more than the loan taken.
Neo-colonialism walks freely in our mist. We are the sole catalyst of it development while we rant and hope the economies of our continent will be stable.

Why not purchase products made in our continent, we sometimes make emphasis on it quality which in some cases might be true. To our manufacturers, take such views into consideration and give us quality for our money.
To illegal miners in our region, refrain from condoning and conniving with external forces in the destruction of our fertile soil and fresh water bodies.

Chale Wote or Charley Wote?


A great number of events are organised all around the world each year and millions of people attend them, for some reasons. For the event organisers however, the main purpose of events is to bring people together and create an environment of synergy and acquiring knowledge.

Did you make an appearance at the Chale Wote street art festival owing to the fact that a friend of a Ga origin uttered ‘Charley wote’ or perhaps you did because it was the most anticipated event popularly known as ‘Chale wote’.

There is a big gap between the two in case you are puzzled.
Literally, Chale wote has it definition stemming from the name and the artefact flip-flop, commonly used by many a people in many a household.


Chale Wote reminds people of the art festival, that is the Chale Wote street art festival.
Well, the “Chale Wote” street art festival is known to create a platform that brings music, art, dance and other memorable performances together on the streets of Jamestown.

Charley Wote on the other hand means “buddy/ friend let’s go”. (In Ghana, “charley” has a thousand meanings, with the dominant one being ‘friend or buddy’ while “wote”, is a Ga word for ‘let’s go’)


So Charley Wote contextually implies friends calling other friends to go to an art festival but in real life how many friends call you when beautiful opportunities like that come up?
How many friends call to say, “Charley! The organisers are in need of artists so go submit your application”?

Do friends only call friends for them to just go walk around streets and appreciate art with their camera lenses or friends call friends to hold their hands through the hallway of life, the stairs of life, the ups and downs of life and all of that?
Are friends there when your life is bustling like the Chale Wote festival?


Are friends there when success is beautifully painted in your endeavours just like the graffiti designs at Chale wote?


Are friends there to fulfill the need of an encouraging company when the crowd gets too intimidating or friends are only there during the Chale wote moments?

(Sigh) That’s just by the way.

Research has shown that people attend events not only in view of the fact that it creates networking opportunities or education but rather due to invitations from friends or the event being the people’s place at the moment.
Nonetheless, this year’s edition of Chale Wote street art festival which spanned from 14th – 25th August 2019, under the theme ‘PIDGIN IMAGINARIUM’ included; street painting, photography, live street performance, fashion parade, music block party, film labs and much more.

I must say, Chale Wote has been one of the few platforms that gives people the chance to learn from diverse people coming from diverse backgrounds, geographical settings and cultures as they exhibit their talents and creativity.

The synonym for Chale wote is creativity.
It’s high time Ghanaians clutch to music, dance and art as one of the economically boosting activities in the country.

The breathtaking exhibition by artistes was awesome.
From live graffiti painting to

Fashion parade by models in beautiful wearables made from beads, plastic, leaves, etc






Indeed, fashion has a voice in Ghana.

As Ghanaian fabrics with lively colours and complex patterns was the talk of the day, sewn all manner of shapes and styles.



One could undoubtedly come to the assertion that, creativity does not wait for the perfect moment.

And a big thumbs up to the Creative guru’s who decided to share their talents and skills with the world.

In case you missed out on the festival, you can view all the fascinating moments via Instagram @destiny_lens_


My Reading List



We are half way through the 365 days but I am planning to read 8 books by the end of the year which I find realistic depending on my schedules. At least some of us were not born with the grace for finishing very handsome amount of books.

Over the past few days nonetheless, I have spent time soliciting from my friends and audience on reads they found interesting. I was not too astounded to discover that we had some similarities in our taste for books.
The topics ranged from politics to crime investigations, christianity, African fiction, love and law.

As this is my first reading list I have shared on my blog, let me kick start with what I have read so far this year;

*The Principles of communism by Frederick Engels ( Written: October-November 1847)
This book highlights what communism is and further gives in-depth understanding on the working class.

*The Marriage of Anansewa by Efua T. Sutherland
There is in Ghana a story-telling art called Ananses3m by the Akan-speaking people. The name, which literally means Ananse stories. Efua Sutherland adapts this technique in this sparkling piece. The story centers on Ananse’s beautiful daughter, Anansewa, who is the most valuable asset of the father. The story highlights greed and foxiness with just a hint of youthful romance.

*Kwame Nkrumah’s speech during the Conference of African Heads of State and Government.( Addis Ababa-May 24, 1963)
I enjoyed this, owing to the fact that Kwame Nkrumah clearly stated the catalyst of African development and liberation from economic bondage and neo-colonization. He also stressed on the need for African union (“…we must unite now or perish – Nkrumah”) under socialism.

*The beautyful ones are not yet born by Ayi Kwei Armah (1968)
This is a must read, a novel that focuses on Ghana in the mid-1960s before the fall of Kwame Nkrumah, the country’s first president. One of the key underlying issues that the author presents is the naivety of the Ghanaian people, when they celebrated independence.

Now to my reading list for the rest of the year 2019;
– The Reciprocity of God’s Love
By Eastwood Anaba



–  Petals of Blood
By Ngugi Wa Thiong’o



– Challenge of the Congo

By Kwame Nkrumah



– I Don’t Believe in Tithing

By Eastwood Anaba



– The Richest Man in Babylon
By George S. Clason



– Lazybones and The Burning Girl (Two books in one volume)

By Mark Billingham



– Money Galore
By Amu Djoleto

–  Every Man Is a Race
By Mia Couto


I would conclude with saying that , in as much as this is to motivate me to read, its also for you to fill your checklist of books.


 Grab a copy by contacting Ibrahim-Anyass Muhammed on instagram @mrnazz_

And if you enjoyed this or any post of mine, kindly consider sharing it on your social media platforms.

Tamale; the place to be

It has been several days since I returned home from a 3-days National Youth and Tertiary Students residential conference organized by the Fountain Gate Chapel at UDS Campus, Tamale-Ghana.

I believe every journey is a quest and mine was to identify my divine purpose as a Christian and also tour Tamale, which is situated at the north of Ghana. For most people, the north of Ghana is considered as a desert with a bold “NO GO AREA’’ stuck on it environs. That was my perception too but I was keen to find out the truth of it when I went camping there.

The Northern region is one of the sixteen regions of Ghana, located in the north of the country. With regards to Ghana’s tropical climate, having two main seasons; the wet and the dry seasons, Northern Ghana experiences it rainy season from April to mid October. Deductively, one can say that it is not always dry or ‘desert-ish’  nature at the northern part of Ghana.

Well, this article draws it lens on my experience at Tamale, so let me leave the climate issue for the meteorologists.

The journey started from the Greater Accra Region to Northern Region, covering at least eight regions in Ghana before getting to  Tamale. It was a 12 hours drive with 3 stops at rest centers and filling stations. Due to the current season; the wet season, the Northern region–Tamale– is bestowed with greenly refreshing environment. Livestock freely roam around in green spaces nearby to graze while being guided by their herdsmen.


The forest reserve will blow your mind with a thousand shades of green I have never seen until my stay there. For a minute, something got me thinking; the urban areas in the Greater Accra region are bustling with people from far and near in search of greener  pastures, even natives of northern Ghana, meanwhile the lands they are migrating from is as green as an unripe mango! I learnt from a chit-chat I had with an elderly man that, the vast plots of land which can be used to establish business or better still build social amenities for the people are not as elusive to a acquire there. One would simply need to consult the custodian of the land, giving a laudable reason for why it should be given up.
The perfect blend of modern buildings and traditional mud houses inhabited by the people affirms the fact that culture is indeed dynamic.





Some unforgettable names of towns I could gather are Bawa Akuraa, Kapom Yili, Buipe and Yapei.
I also observed that motorbikes are commonly used as a medium of transportation too, which undoubtedly makes Tamale a bike friendly city. Children ride on it to their schools as well as market women to their various trading locations. There’s always a bustling view of motorbikes wheezing along roads.


Notwithstanding the fact that the main market is in the center of the town, one could find all sorts of foodstuffs such as banana, groundnut, fried guinea fowl, tomatoes, and tubers of yam being sold on the roadside and carried mainly by women in large basin on their head.
I also noted that Tamale is the center of hospitality. The natives are kind and warm; Everybody is regarded as family with no discrimination whatsoever.
A big thank you to my bus-sitting partners to and fro Tamale; Abalansa and Kwaku, who assisted in taking images and critical observations. And oh, if you ever think of taking time off work for vacations, consider  giving yourself a tour at the Northern part of Ghana, which is loaded with numerous tourist sites like the Mole National park, Larabanga mosque, Salaga slave market, Larabanga mystery stone, Daboya Township and Yendi.

A case study on misplaced priorities




For most people who believe that development of their countries lies in the hands of it government, an election is the source of hope for them. An elected political party is seen as the liberator of economic bondage and under-development, but this cannot be achieved under capitalism. Indeed, these governments provide some sort of social amenities for the people before they are voted out of office.

It’s acknowledged that, none of the governments during their defined term of office can bring a total development. Nonetheless, as the coin has two sides, so does every administration have their merits and demerits which everyone determines the side they want to rant on. So, it is either one constructively or destructively criticize the actions and inactions of the government or perhaps do both.

Some Ghanaians have witness a series of ill-talked through decisions made by the past and current administration. From the $12.5 million drone contract approved by parliament to the agreement that allows the United States of America to set up a military base in Ghana and others I do not want to bore you with.

Just like the lion that has been fighting since childhood, the current administration of Ghana is still on the rise. The citizens, again have been served with the proposal of the construction of a 450-seat parliament house, yes I am talking about the new chamber saga. You might have of heard of it or probably read about it in the newspaper or an online news portal.

Not to keep you in suspense; but I plead to divert on the issue for a minute, so I highlight another. During the administration of John Dramani Mahama, there were 88 ministers whom the New Patriotic Party (NPP) then in opposition criticized, they claimed the number of ministers in that administration was many and they should try to save the national purse (Myjoyonline-2019). But when the same NPP came into power under the Akufo-Addo administration he swore 123 ministers into office. Sarcastically, that would save the national purse I guess. Not to mention the numerous incentives and exorbitant salaries.

I always ask myself : “Wh are many people from different professions with no political education step out of their profession to embrace politics with arms wide open and a broad smirk on their face?”


I will leave you to answer that yourself.

Now, on the central focus of this article; from my basic education in Economics, I believe that every individual on earth has a “Scale of preference” and so does the current administration of Ghana. With regards to the promises made to the people during election campaigns, where will they place their “want” which is the proposal of a new chamber and the “needs” which is providing social amenities for the people that voted them into office?


Which one is their outmost priority?

It is widely known how lack of social infrastructure affects community well-being and the country at large.

Do we have well-constructed roads in Dokrochiwa, Dawhenya, Tarkwa, Kwahu-Oda.Asamangkese, etc.

Has the needs of my junior brothers and sisters who have to attend schools under tress been sorted?

Has the need of my folks at rural areas who do not have a single borehole been resolved?

Not to talk of other poverty alleviation projects that has not been initiated. Indeed everything is a process and not a single government can do it all. I have heard and known diverse views on the need for the building of a new parliament house to accommodate the increasing numbers of parliamentarians in the country. But this is not the right time and the right resources to be used for the new chamber construction.

Let’s tackle other issues that seeks to serve the people.


DSC_3132 - Copy


I have been lenient enough with my diction. I have over-looked the misery of my society because of ignorance and narrowing my mind off topical issues that I could have created awareness via the articles I share on my blog. I plead to differ for the revolutionary writer has been unveiled.

A wise man ones said “Education is the movement from darkness to light”. Undoubtedly, education is the key to success that seeks to raise our consciousness on issues. Serving as an eye opener, one can say that, it enables people to investigate and analyze activities in the society and the world at large.

During my first year in university, the respect and integrity I had for Kwame Nkrumah led me to claim that I was a Marxist without applying the theories propounded by Karl Marx to ongoing situations in the society or blaming an external factor when I could apply simple logic. I claimed to be a Pan-Africanist without knowing the task ahead and that there was a need to fervently stress on unity among African countries that will bind us under socialism to be able to liberate ourselves from imperialism, capitalism and neo-colonialism.

I claimed all these, not because I fancied the words or it sounded appealing to my ear, but I have identified that I claimed all these because somewhere in my heart there was a seed of a fighter deep-rooted in me, deep-seated in you; to arise and aid in raising the awareness and continue from where the race partially ended.

Let’s take a minute to cast our minds back on the period our African leaders were fighting for liberation. In as much as we gained independence, that was not given to as holistically, we are faced with neo-colonialism. Indirectly our motherlands and fatherlands are still in turmoil from economic bondage. As Kwame Nkrumah said “we must recognize that our economic independence resides in our African union and requires the same concentration upon the political achievement”. Why blame the government entirely when some way somehow our minor daily activities had led to the underdevelopment of our continent, why do we allow history repeat itself not to our advantage.

On the other side, when some of the leaders in our continent gain wealth, they make investments in other continents. Why should that be so? Is our continent not worthy of their investments too. It’s without doubt that our continent has become a cemetery for some leaders.

For those that have held onto the baton and raced their hearts out, comrades I salute your efforts. Comrades I say that your efforts would not go in vain in as much as it looks like it. Africa unity under socialism alone can weld us into an effective force, capable of creating our own progress and making our valuable contribution to the world. That unity begins from our homes, workplace, school, hospitals or wherever we find ourselves in the act of human interaction. The efforts our fore fathers planted in the liberation of Africa was to heal our wound so why do we allow same situations that existed in the days of slavery, colonization, feudalism occur in the present day?

If all things being equal we are one step ahead and a step backwards.

Space Travel- becoming your own Astronaut

Centuries back, traveling over the Earth’s surface was a hazardous profession and adventure. It was all done in the name of discovering and exploring the celestial structures in outer space. Basically it is an in-depth research of the universe.

Space travel is a ballistic flight into or through outer space occurring with spacecraft with or without human on board. It has become much safer albeit the efforts of scientists to overcome potential problems. But space travel is still dangerous.

An astronaut or a cosmonaut is essential when we need humans on board for a space travel since an astronaut is a person who is trained to travel in a spacecraft but their work goes beyond that.

When it comes to astronomy it’s a big deal for me. Today’s usage of space travel is becoming your own astronaut which is far away from the dictionary definition.

I’m no motivational speaker or writer not because I cannot master the art but I believe that being able to inspire or motivate people is a gift from God and it takes experience to do that.

As stated earlier, space travel in this context is far from the original; space travel in this section is defined as the journey of people in the world, where these individuals take the role of astronauts.

Therefore in our personal lives we should see ourselves as astronauts on a mission or expedition having a strict period of time to spend on that journey.

It’s identified how astronauts take calculated risks when exploring the space. As humans, we are expected to do same in our daily activities. We should be mindful of every decision we make since every decision has the tendency of making or unmaking our journey.

In our quest to journey through life, there should be a clear vision and action strategy we work on daily basis. This is no cliché but honestly, if you fail to plan, you plan to fail. Just like the astronaut who plans and trains before going on a space travel, every Tom, Dick and Harry should be well informed and equipped enough to have a fulfilling life travel.

As humans we should perceive our existence as a space travel, where we get to go back to our original destination within a stimulated time unknown to us. With regard to this, it is safe to concentrate massively on making your grass greener, Most often people turn to mock slow progress and growth.

Nonetheless through all this as an astronaut on a space travel, never forget that the slow movement of a cheetah is not a mistake but a calculated accuracy which suits its visions.

Every step or action we take just like the astronaut matters. In as much as we consider and observe comments or anything around us we should be able to determine what’s good for as or not, to be able to become successful in whatever we seek to achieve. As astronauts in space takes command or precautionary ideas from the mission control.

In summary, I want you to clutch to these five statements
• Have a vision for yourself
• Follow your passion
• Surround yourself with like-minded people
• Let no one talk you out of your ambitions
• Love yourself before you can others.

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